Endothelial activation and dysfunction in the pathogenesis of influenza A virus infection

Virulence. 2013 Aug 15;4(6):537-42. doi: 10.4161/viru.25779. Epub 2013 Jul 17.


The development of severe influenza has been attributed, in part, to a heightened innate immune response. Recent evidence suggests that endothelial activation, loss of barrier function, and consequent microvascular leak may also serve important mechanistic roles in the pathogenesis of severe influenza. The aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence in support of endothelial activation and dysfunction as a central feature preceding the development of severe influenza. We also discuss the effect of influenza on platelet-endothelial interactions.

Keywords: acute lung injury; endothelium; influenza A; microvascular leak; platelets; thrombosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Endothelium, Vascular / immunology
  • Endothelium, Vascular / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Influenza A virus / pathogenicity
  • Influenza A virus / physiology*
  • Influenza, Human / immunology
  • Influenza, Human / pathology
  • Influenza, Human / physiopathology*
  • Influenza, Human / virology