Background: Intensive lipid-lowering therapy with statins reduces cardiovascular events, but residual cardiovascular risks remain. Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been associated with cardiovascular events. We examined the relationships between serum n-3 PUFAs and coronary atherosclerotic findings on computed tomography angiography (CTA) in patients undergoing statin treatment.
Methods and results: We enrolled 172 subjects (mean age: 68.2 years; 64% men) prior to statin treatment for 6 months. Serum PUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid, were measured. When the patients were divided into 2 groups according to the median EPA level (61.3 μg/ml), the low-EPA group showed higher incidences of 3-vessel plaque involvement (62% vs. 43%, P=0.015), noncalcified plaques (NCPs) (74% vs. 52%, P=0.0016), extensive NCPs (≥ 2 segments) (56% vs. 34%, P=0.0036), and high-risk plaques (minimum CT density <39 HU and remodeling index >1.05) (43% vs. 22%, P=0.0034). Multivariate analyses revealed that low EPA levels were an independent factor for these coronary plaque findings. The DHA levels were not independently associated with these findings.
Conclusions: Low serum EPA level, but not serum DHA, is associated with the presence and extent of NCPs and high-risk plaques detected by coronary CTA in patients undergoing lipid-lowering therapy with statins.