The invisible gorilla strikes again: sustained inattentional blindness in expert observers

Psychol Sci. 2013 Sep;24(9):1848-53. doi: 10.1177/0956797613479386. Epub 2013 Jul 17.


Researchers have shown that people often miss the occurrence of an unexpected yet salient event if they are engaged in a different task, a phenomenon known as inattentional blindness. However, demonstrations of inattentional blindness have typically involved naive observers engaged in an unfamiliar task. What about expert searchers who have spent years honing their ability to detect small abnormalities in specific types of images? We asked 24 radiologists to perform a familiar lung-nodule detection task. A gorilla, 48 times the size of the average nodule, was inserted in the last case that was presented. Eighty-three percent of the radiologists did not see the gorilla. Eye tracking revealed that the majority of those who missed the gorilla looked directly at its location. Thus, even expert searchers, operating in their domain of expertise, are vulnerable to inattentional blindness.

Keywords: perception; selective attention; visual attention.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Attention / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Lung / diagnostic imaging
  • Lung Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • Middle Aged
  • Photic Stimulation / methods*
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed*
  • Visual Perception / physiology*
  • Young Adult