The clinical value of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (autoHSCT) in the subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with double mutant CEBPA (CEBPAdm) has remained unsettled. Among 2983 patients analyzed for CEBPA mutational status (age 18-60 years) treated on 4 published Dutch-Belgian-Swiss Hemato-Oncology Cooperative Group (HOVON/SAKK) and 3 German-Austrian AML Study Group (AMLSG) protocols (2 published, 1 registered, clinicaltrials.gov NCT00151255), 124 had AML with CEBPAdm and achieved first complete remission (CR1). Evaluation of the clinical impact of alloHSCT and autoHSCT vs chemotherapy was performed by addressing time dependency in the statistical analyses. Thirty-two patients proceeded to alloHSCT from a matched related (MRD, n = 29) or a matched unrelated donor (MUD, n = 3), 20 to autoHSCT in CR1 and 72 received chemotherapy. Relapse-free survival was significantly superior in patients receiving an alloHSCT or autoHSCT in CR1 as compared with chemotherapy (P < .001), whereas overall survival was not different (P < .12). Forty-five patients relapsed. Of 42 patients treated with reinduction therapy, 35 achieved a second CR (83%) and most patients (n = 33) received an alloHSCT MRD, n = 11; MUD, n = 19; haplo-identical donor, n = 3). Survival of relapsed patients measured from date of relapse was 46% after 3 years. Adult AML patients with CEBPAdm benefit from alloHSCT and autoHSCT; relapsed patients still have a favorable outcome after reinduction followed by alloHSCT.