Clinical outcomes of augmentation cystoplasty in patients suffering from ketamine-related bladder contractures

Int Urol Nephrol. 2013 Oct;45(5):1245-51. doi: 10.1007/s11255-013-0501-4. Epub 2013 Jul 18.


Objective: To evaluate the outcomes of augmentation cystoplasty in patients with bladder contractures secondary to chronic ketamine abuse.

Method: Patients who had received augmentation cystoplasty to treat ketamine-related bladder contractures in two hospitals in our region were reviewed retrospectively. Their history of ketamine consumption, presenting symptoms, history of treatment, surgical information and post-operative conditions were retrieved from clinical records and then summarized.

Results: Between 2006 and 2011, four patients (three women and one man), aged 21-30 years (mean 27 years), underwent augmentation cystoplasty for ketamine-related bladder contractures. The duration of ketamine consumption ranged from 3 to 15 years, and all four patients resumed ketamine consumption after surgery. The mean maximal baseline and post-operative bladder capacity was 37.5 cc (range 25-50 cc) and up to 400-500 cc, respectively. Three patients experienced a further deterioration in renal function that was secondary to new-onset ureteral strictures in two cases and to sepsis in the other. At the time of the last follow-up, three patients could void spontaneously and one required regular intermittent catheterization.

Conclusion: Ketamine cystitis is an emerging medical condition that requires a multi-disciplinary approach to manage the patients. Simple surgical management of the physical component of the contracted bladder may produce only suboptimal results, and could even cause further problems in some patients. The importance of compliance with post-operative care and abstinence from drug use should be stressed to the patients before surgery. In view of the high complication rate, the option of a simple ileal conduit should also be discussed prior to surgical intervention.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Contracture / chemically induced
  • Contracture / diagnosis
  • Contracture / surgery*
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Ketamine / adverse effects*
  • Male
  • Renal Insufficiency / blood
  • Renal Insufficiency / chemically induced
  • Substance-Related Disorders / complications
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urinary Bladder / surgery*
  • Urination Disorders / chemically induced
  • Urination Disorders / diagnosis
  • Young Adult


  • Ketamine
  • Creatinine