Aim: Existing epidemiologic evidence for the association between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk is inconsistent.
Methods: We investigated the association between the use of aspirin and nonaspirin NSAIDs and RCC risk in the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) Diet and Health Study, for which 298,468 AARP members free of cancer, aged 50-71 years, completed a survey on use of NSAIDs (1996-1997). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR).
Results: The state cancer registry and mortality index linkage identified 1,084 incident RCC cases through 31 December 2006. No statistically significant associations between the use of aspirin or nonaspirin NSAIDs and RCC risk were found. Compared to nonuse of any NSAIDs, the multivariate-adjusted HRs were 0.95 (95 % CI 0.75-1.21) and 0.93 (95 % CI 0.68-1.26) for monthly use of aspirin and nonaspirin NSAIDs, respectively, 0.92 (95 % CI: 0.69-1.23) and 1.11 (95 % CI: 0.76-1.62) for weekly use, 0.87 (95 % CI: 0.69-1.11) and 1.06 (95 % CI: 0.75-1.48) for daily use; and 0.95 (95 % CI 0.78-1.14) for the use of both aspirin and nonaspirin NSAIDs. We found some suggestions of an increased risk of RCC associated with frequent NSAID use among participants who were <63 years and a reduced risk associated with aspirin use among those ≥63 years. No significant associations were found in other stratified analyses by gender, BMI, smoking, history of diabetes, or history of hypertension.
Conclusion: RCC risk was not significantly associated with NSAID use overall. The difference in association by age needs to be explored further.