Time course of gene expression during mouse skeletal muscle hypertrophy

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2013 Oct 1;115(7):1065-74. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00611.2013. Epub 2013 Jul 18.


The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive transcriptome analysis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy to identify signaling pathways that are operative throughout the hypertrophic response. Global gene expression patterns were determined from microarray results on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 during plantaris muscle hypertrophy induced by synergist ablation in adult mice. Principal component analysis and the number of differentially expressed genes (cutoffs ≥2-fold increase or ≥50% decrease compared with control muscle) revealed three gene expression patterns during overload-induced hypertrophy: early (1 day), intermediate (3, 5, and 7 days), and late (10 and 14 days) patterns. Based on the robust changes in total RNA content and in the number of differentially expressed genes, we focused our attention on the intermediate gene expression pattern. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed a downregulation of genes encoding components of the branched-chain amino acid degradation pathway during hypertrophy. Among these genes, five were predicted by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis or previously shown to be regulated by the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor-15, which was also downregulated during hypertrophy. Moreover, the integrin-linked kinase signaling pathway was activated during hypertrophy, and the downregulation of muscle-specific micro-RNA-1 correlated with the upregulation of five predicted targets associated with the integrin-linked kinase pathway. In conclusion, we identified two novel pathways that may be involved in muscle hypertrophy, as well as two upstream regulators (Kruppel-like factor-15 and micro-RNA-1) that provide targets for future studies investigating the importance of these pathways in muscle hypertrophy.

Keywords: ILK signaling; KLF15; branched-chain amino acid; micro-RNA-1; transcriptome.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acids, Branched-Chain / genetics
  • Amino Acids, Branched-Chain / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Down-Regulation / genetics
  • Gene Expression / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Profiling / methods
  • Hypertrophy / genetics*
  • Hypertrophy / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • MicroRNAs / genetics
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / pathology*
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Up-Regulation / genetics


  • Amino Acids, Branched-Chain
  • MicroRNAs
  • Transcription Factors
  • integrin-linked kinase
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases