Background: The green tea extract is a naturally occurring product having beneficial effects that counteract with the pathobiological features of periodontitis and diabetes mellitus. Hence, the present study was aimed at incorporation of green tea extract into hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose and investigates its efficacy in chronic periodontitis patients associated with and without diabetes mellitus.
Materials and methods: For the in vitro study, formulation of green tea strips and placebo strips, and analysis of drug release pattern from the green tea strips at different time intervals were performed. For the in vivo study, 50 patients (20-65 years), including 25 systemically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis (group 1) and 25 diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis (group 2) were enrolled. In each patient, test and control sites were identified for the placement of green tea and placebo strips, respectively. Gingival Index (GI), Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) were examined at baseline, first, second, third, and fourth weeks. Microbiological analysis for Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was performed at baseline and fourth week.
Results: The in vitro study showed 10.67% green tea release at 30 min; thereafter, a slow release was noted till 120 min.
In vivo study: Both groups showed significant reduction in GI scores at the test sites. Group 1 showed significant (P < 0.001) PPD reduction at different time intervals at the test sites. However, group 2 showed significant reduction from baseline (5.30 ± 0.70) to fourth week (3.5 ± 0.97). Statistically significant gain in CAL at the test sites was observed both in group 1 (1.33 mm) and group 2 (1.43 mm). The prevalence of P. gingivalis in group 1 test sites was significantly reduced from baseline (75%) to fourth week (25%).
Conclusions: Local drug delivery using green tea extract could be used as an adjunct in the treatment of chronic periodontitis in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals.
Keywords: Antimicrobial; antioxidant; controlled clinical trial; diabetes; green tea extract; local drug delivery; periodontitis.