Salmonella invade host cells using Type 3 secreted effectors, which modulate host cellular targets to promote actin rearrangements at the cell surface that drive bacterial uptake. The Arp2/3 complex contributes to Salmonella invasion but is not essential, indicating other actin regulatory factors are involved. Here, we show a novel role for FHOD1, a formin family member, in Salmonella invasion. FHOD1 and Arp2/3 occupy distinct microdomains at the invasion site and control distinct aspects of membrane protrusion formation. FHOD1 is phosphorylated during infection and this modification is required for promoting bacterial uptake by host cells. ROCK II, but not ROCK I, is recruited to the invasion site and is required for FHOD1 phosphorylation and for Salmonella invasion. Together, our studies revealan important phospho-dependent FHOD1 actin polymerization pathway in Salmonella invasion.
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.