Anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of fresh ginger is attributed mainly to 10-gingerol

Food Chem. 2013 Dec 1;141(3):3183-91. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.06.010. Epub 2013 Jun 11.

Abstract

Despite the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of ginger, the corresponding active constituents are unclear. This study analyzed the composition of fresh ginger ethanolic extract by using LC-MS. Inhibitory activities of fresh ginger extract and seven gingerol-related compounds on the neuro-inflammation were also evaluated by using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV2 microglia culture model. Except for zingerone and 6-gingerol, other gingerols and shogaols at a concentration of 20 μM inhibited the production of nitric oxide, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α as well as their mRNA levels in LPS-activated BV2 microglia. Blocking NF-κB activation was the underlying mechanism responsible for inhibiting the proinflammatory gene expression. Increasing the alkyl chain length enhanced the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of gingerols yet, conversely, attenuated those of shogaols. 6-Gingerol was the most abundant compound in the fresh ginger extract, followed by 10-gingerol. Furthermore, fresh ginger extract exhibited a significant anti-neuroinflammatory capacity, which was largely owing to 10-gingerol, but not 6-gingerol.

Keywords: Ginger; Gingerol; Microglia; Neuroinflammation; Shogaol; Zingerone.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Catechols / chemistry
  • Catechols / pharmacology*
  • Cell Line
  • Fatty Alcohols / chemistry
  • Fatty Alcohols / pharmacology*
  • Ginger / chemistry*
  • Interleukin-1beta / genetics
  • Interleukin-1beta / immunology
  • Interleukin-6 / genetics
  • Interleukin-6 / immunology
  • Mice
  • Microglia / drug effects
  • Microglia / immunology*
  • Neuroprotective Agents / chemistry
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology

Substances

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Catechols
  • Fatty Alcohols
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Interleukin-6
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Plant Extracts
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • gingerol