Transcriptomic and phenotypic analysis of paralogous spx gene function in Bacillus anthracis Sterne

Microbiologyopen. 2013 Aug;2(4):695-714. doi: 10.1002/mbo3.109. Epub 2013 Jul 22.

Abstract

Spx of Bacillus subtilis is a redox-sensitive protein, which, under disulfide stress, interacts with RNA polymerase to activate genes required for maintaining thiol homeostasis. Spx orthologs are highly conserved among low %GC Gram-positive bacteria, and often exist in multiple paralogous forms. In this study, we used B. anthracis Sterne, which harbors two paralogous spx genes, spxA1 and spxA2, to examine the phenotypes of spx null mutations and to identify the genes regulated by each Spx paralog. Cells devoid of spxA1 were sensitive to diamide and hydrogen peroxide, while the spxA1 spoxA2 double mutant was hypersensitive to the thiol-specific oxidant, diamide. Bacillus anthracis Sterne strains expressing spxA1DD or spxA2DD alleles encoding protease-resistant products were used in microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analyses in order to uncover genes under SpxA1, SpxA2, or SpxA1/SpxA2 control. Comparison of transcriptomes identified many genes that were upregulated when either SpxA1DD or SpxA2DD was produced, but several genes were uncovered whose transcript levels increased in only one of the two SpxADD-expression strains, suggesting that each Spx paralog governs a unique regulon. Among genes that were upregulated were those encoding orthologs of proteins that are specifically involved in maintaining intracellular thiol homeostasis or alleviating oxidative stress. Some of these genes have important roles in B. anthracis pathogenesis, and a large number of upregulated hypothetical genes have no homology outside of the B. cereus/thuringiensis group. Microarray and RT-qPCR analyses also unveiled a regulatory link that exists between the two spx paralogous genes. The data indicate that spxA1 and spxA2 are transcriptional regulators involved in relieving disulfide stress but also control a set of genes whose products function in other cellular processes.

Keywords: Bacillus anthracis; SpxA1; SpxA2; oxidative stress; transcriptomic.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Bacillus anthracis / drug effects
  • Bacillus anthracis / genetics*
  • Bacillus anthracis / physiology*
  • Bacterial Proteins / biosynthesis*
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Diamide / toxicity
  • Gene Deletion
  • Gene Expression Profiling*
  • Gene Order
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / toxicity
  • Microarray Analysis
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Oxidants / toxicity
  • Oxidative Stress*
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Transcription Factors / biosynthesis*
  • Transcription Factors / genetics

Substances

  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Oxidants
  • Transcription Factors
  • Diamide
  • Hydrogen Peroxide