Purpose: We describe the effects of soy isoflavone consumption on prostate specific antigen (PSA), hormone levels, total cholesterol, and apoptosis in men with localized prostate cancer.
Methodology/principal findings: We conducted a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effect of soy isoflavone capsules (80 mg/d of total isoflavones, 51 mg/d aglucon units) on serum and tissue biomarkers in patients with localized prostate cancer. Eighty-six men were randomized to treatment with isoflavones (n=42) or placebo (n=44) for up to six weeks prior to scheduled prostatectomy. We performed microarray analysis using a targeted cell cycle regulation and apoptosis gene chip (GEArrayTM). Changes in serum total testosterone, free testosterone, total estrogen, estradiol, PSA, and total cholesterol were analyzed at baseline, mid-point, and at the time of radical prostatectomy. In this preliminary analysis, 12 genes involved in cell cycle control and 9 genes involved in apoptosis were down-regulated in the treatment tumor tissues versus the placebo control. Changes in serum total testosterone, free testosterone, total estrogen, estradiol, PSA, and total cholesterol in the isoflavone-treated group compared to men receiving placebo were not statistically significant.
Conclusions/significance: These data suggest that short-term intake of soy isoflavones did not affect serum hormone levels, total cholesterol, or PSA.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00255125.