Prevalence of drug resistance and associated mutations in a population of Hiv-1+ Puerto Ricans in 2005

Bol Asoc Med P R. 2010 Jul-Sep;102(3):13-7.


This is a continuation of our efforts to maintain a record of the evolution of HIV-1 infection in Puerto Rico by monitoring the expression levels of antiretroviral resistance-associated mutations. Samples from 2005 were analyzed (458: 270 males, 137 females, 51 anonymous), using the TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Kit and the OpenGene DNA Sequencing System. Results show that 60.1% of males and 50.2% of females had HIV-1 with resistance to at least one medication. The average number of HIV mutations in males was 6.27, while the average number of HIV mutations in females was 5.49. The highest levels of resistance were to Zalcitabine, Lamivudine, and Stavudine. The reverse transcriptase mutations with the highest frequency of expression were M184V, K103N and D67N. Protease mutations with the highest rate of expression were L63P, M361 and L90M. Significant differences between men and women were recorded in the levels of HIV-1 expressed mutations and resistance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Drug Resistance, Viral / genetics*
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • HIV Infections / virology*
  • HIV-1 / drug effects*
  • HIV-1 / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mutation*
  • Prevalence
  • Puerto Rico / epidemiology


  • Anti-HIV Agents