In vivo fluorescent adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) imaging of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans by using a genetically encoded fluorescent ATP biosensor optimized for low temperatures

Anal Chem. 2013 Aug 20;85(16):7889-96. doi: 10.1021/ac4015325. Epub 2013 Aug 8.


Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy currency of all living organisms. Despite its important functions, the spatiotemporal dynamics of ATP levels inside living multicellular organisms is unclear. In this study, we modified the genetically encoded Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based ATP biosensor ATeam to optimize its affinity at low temperatures. This new biosensor, AT1.03NL, detected ATP changes inside Drosophila S2 cells more sensitively than the original biosensor did, at 25 °C. By expressing AT1.03NL in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, we succeeded in imaging the in vivo ATP dynamics of these model animals at single-cell resolution.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Animals, Genetically Modified
  • Biosensing Techniques*
  • Caenorhabditis elegans / metabolism*
  • Cold Temperature*
  • Drosophila melanogaster / metabolism*
  • Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer
  • Fluorescent Dyes / metabolism*


  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Adenosine Triphosphate