Comparison of genotypic and phenotypic HIV type 1 tropism assay: results from the screening samples of Cenicriviroc Study 202, a randomized phase II trial in treatment-naive subjects

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Feb;30(2):151-9. doi: 10.1089/AID.2013.0123. Epub 2013 Aug 14.


Cenicriviroc is a once-daily oral CCR5/CCR2 antagonist in development for treatment of HIV infection. CVC Study 202 (652-2-202; NCT01338883) excluded treatment-naive subjects demonstrated to harbor non-R5 (CXCR4-tropic or dual-mixed) tropic HIV-1 by either genotypic or phenotypic tropism testing. Here we compare the results of genotypic and phenotypic tropism testing in Study 202. A total of 304 subjects screened had paired genotypic and phenotypic results. Genotypic tropism testing (GTT) incorporated triplicate population sequencing using the geno2pheno algorithm and the PSSM algorithm, followed by ultradeep sequencing (UDS) for samples with R5 results. All samples were further evaluated with a phenotypic test, the enhanced-sensitivity Trofile assay (ESTA). Concordance between GTT and ESTA was 80% and increased to 84% when only geno2pheno was used for triplicate population sequencing. GTT (geno2pheno) classified 18% of the samples as non-R5 compared to 16% by ESTA. Only one-third of samples with non-R5 results by either test were classified as non-R5 by both tests. Median CD4((+)) cell counts were lower in patients with concordant non-R5 results by UDS and ESTA than in subjects with an R5 result by either assay (p=0.0004). UDS detected non-R5 virus in an additional 27/304 subjects (median 15% non-R5, interquartile range: 3.7-62%) with R5 results by ESTA. In conclusion, the geno2pheno algorithm improves concordance of GTT with a clinically validated phenotypic tropism assay as does the use of UDS. These findings provide support for recent guidelines indicating that genotypic tropism testing may be considered as an alternative to phenotypic testing.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • HIV Infections / virology*
  • HIV-1 / classification*
  • HIV-1 / isolation & purification
  • HIV-1 / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenotype
  • Receptors, HIV / analysis*
  • Viral Tropism*
  • Virology / methods*
  • Young Adult


  • Receptors, HIV

Associated data