Inflammation is viewed as one of the major causes for the development of different diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and CNS related diseases such as depression and parkinson's disease; and this fervent phenomenon provides space for understanding different inflammatory markers. Increasing evidences have elucidated the outcome of inflammatory pathways dysregulation resulting in many symptoms of chronic diseases. The detection of transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), STAT and their gene products such as COX-2, cytokines, chemokines and chemokine receptors has laid molecular foundation for the important role of inflammation in chronic diseases in which the NF-κB is reported as a major mediator which makes a possible way for the development of new therapeutic approaches using synthetic and natural compounds that might eventually decrease the prevalence of these diseases. Even if many inflammatory markers like TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and C-reactive protein (CRP) are reported to be the major key factors with proved role in several inflammatory diseases, IL-1 and TNF-α are the important cytokines that can induce the expression of NF-κB which is the potential target in these inflammatory diseases. This review aims to explore and summarize that how some drugs and natural compounds show their modulatory activity in inflammatory pathways and chronic inflammatory markers in these inflammatory diseases.