Reactive oxygen species are recognized as important signaling components in a wide range of processes in plants and most other organisms. Reactive oxygen species are produced in different subcellular compartments in response to specific stimuli and the production is under tight control in order to avoid detrimental side-effects. Calcium signaling, protein phosphorylation and other signaling pathways are intimately involved in the control and coordination of reactive oxygen production. Any signal that should result in a specific response must eventually be perceived. Direct redox modification of transcription factors and other proteins are critical for the perception of intracellular reactive oxygen species; however, sensing of their extracellular counterparts awaits elucidation.
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