The immunolabeling patterns for vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were studied in five rhesus monkeys that had undergone retinal detachment or detachment and reattachment. Anti-vimentin and anti-GFAP labeling intensity increased in Müller cells after 2 days of detachment. Weak anti-vimentin labeling of the basal RPE cytoplasm, which was absent in control tissue, was detected 2 days after detachment. After detachment for 7 days and reattachment for 7 or 14 days, the pattern and extent of intermediate filament (IF) labeling changed. In Müller cells, the labeling, which in controls was restricted to processes near the vitreal border of the retina, was present in Müller processes spanning the entire retina. In retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, prominent anti-vimentin labeling was identified in the basal and basolateral cytoplasm. The extent of RPE and Müller cell IF labeling in two animals whose retinas had been detached and then reattached for 150 days was different from that found at either the 7- or 14-day reattachment time points. This suggests that the abnormal IF distribution triggered by detachment may be attenuated after a lengthy period of reattachment.