Detection and evaluation of elevated lead release from service lines: a field study

Environ Sci Technol. 2013 Aug 20;47(16):9300-7. doi: 10.1021/es4003636. Epub 2013 Aug 2.


Comparative stagnation sampling conducted in 32 homes in Chicago, Illinois with lead service lines demonstrated that the existing regulatory sampling protocol under the U.S. Lead and Copper Rule systematically misses the high lead levels and potential human exposure. Lead levels measured with sequential sampling were highest within the lead service lines, with maximum values more than four times higher than Chicago's regulatory compliance results using a first-draw sampling protocol. There was significant variability in lead values from different points within individual lead service lines and among different lead service line sites across the city. Although other factors could also influence lead levels, the highest lead results most often were associated with sites having known disturbances to the lead service lines. This study underscores the importance and interdependence of sample site selection, sampling protocol, and other factors in assessing lead levels in a public water system.

MeSH terms

  • Environmental Monitoring / methods*
  • Lead / analysis*
  • Risk Management
  • Water Quality / standards*
  • Water Supply


  • Lead