Identifying a standard set of outcome parameters for the evaluation of orthogeriatric co-management for hip fractures

Injury. 2013 Nov;44(11):1403-12. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2013.06.018. Epub 2013 Jul 21.


Background and purpose: Osteoporotic fractures are an increasing problem in the world due to the ageing of the population. Different models of orthogeriatric co-management are currently in use worldwide. These models differ for instance by the health-care professional who has the responsibility for care in the acute and early rehabilitation phases. There is no international consensus regarding the best model of care and which outcome parameters should be used to evaluate these models. The goal of this project was to identify which outcome parameters and assessment tools should be used to measure and compare outcome changes that can be made by the implementation of orthogeriatric co-management models and to develop recommendations about how and when these outcome parameters should be measured. It was not the purpose of this study to describe items that might have an impact on the outcome but cannot be influenced such as age, co-morbidities and cognitive impairment at admission.

Methods: Based on a review of the literature on existing orthogeriatric co-management evaluation studies, 14 outcome parameters were evaluated and discussed in a 2-day meeting with panellists. These panellists were selected based on research and/or clinical expertise in hip fracture management and a common interest in measuring outcome in hip fracture care.

Results: We defined 12 objective and subjective outcome parameters and how they should be measured: mortality, length of stay, time to surgery, complications, re-admission rate, mobility, quality of life, pain, activities of daily living, medication use, place of residence and costs. We could not recommend an appropriate tool to measure patients' satisfaction and falls. We defined the time points at which these outcome parameters should be collected to be at admission and discharge, 30 days, 90 days and 1 year after admission.

Conclusion: Twelve objective and patient-reported outcome parameters were selected to form a standard set for the measurement of influenceable outcome of patients treated in different models of orthogeriatric co-managed care.

Keywords: Co-management; Geriatric Fracture Center; Hip fracture; Osteoporosis; Outcome parameter; Standard score set.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living*
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Frail Elderly*
  • Geriatric Assessment
  • Health Services for the Aged / standards*
  • Hip Fractures / psychology
  • Hip Fractures / rehabilitation*
  • Hip Fractures / therapy
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Length of Stay
  • Male
  • Orthopedic Procedures
  • Osteoporotic Fractures / psychology
  • Osteoporotic Fractures / rehabilitation*
  • Osteoporotic Fractures / therapy
  • Patient Care Team
  • Patient Outcome Assessment
  • Postoperative Care
  • Preoperative Care
  • Recovery of Function
  • Surveys and Questionnaires