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. 2013 Aug 27;54(8):5778-87.
doi: 10.1167/iovs.13-12032.

Perimetric Evaluation of Saccadic Latency, Saccadic Accuracy, and Visual Threshold for Peripheral Visual Stimuli in Young Compared With Older Adults

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Free PMC article

Perimetric Evaluation of Saccadic Latency, Saccadic Accuracy, and Visual Threshold for Peripheral Visual Stimuli in Young Compared With Older Adults

David E Warren et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Purpose: Using a novel automated perimetry technique, we tested the hypothesis that older adults will have increased latency and decreased accuracy of saccades, as well as higher visual thresholds, to peripheral visual stimuli when compared with younger adults.

Methods: We tested 20 healthy subjects aged 18 to 30 years ("young") and 21 healthy subjects at least 60 years old ("older") for detection of briefly flashed peripheral stimuli of differing sizes in eight locations along the horizontal meridian (±4°, ±12°, ±20°, and ±28°). With the left eye occluded, subjects were instructed to look quickly toward any seen stimuli. Right eye movements were recorded with an EyeLink 1000 infrared camera system. Limiting our analysis to the four stimulus positions in the nasal hemifield (-4°, -12°, -20°, and -28°), we evaluated for group-level differences in saccadic latency, accuracy, and visual threshold at each stimulus location.

Results: Saccadic latency increased as stimulus size decreased in both groups. Older subjects had significantly increased saccadic latencies (at all locations; P < 0.05), decreased accuracies (at all locations; P < 0.05), and higher visual thresholds (at the -12°, -20°, and -28° locations; P < 0.05). Additionally, there were significant relationships between visual threshold and latency, visual threshold and accuracy, and latency and accuracy (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Older adults have increased latency and decreased accuracy of saccades, as well as higher visual thresholds, to peripheral visual stimuli when compared with younger adults. Saccadic latency and accuracy are related to visual threshold, suggesting that saccadic latency and accuracy could be useful as perimetric outcome measures.

Keywords: automated perimetry; saccades; visual threshold.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Time series plot of a representative eye movement response (position, in degrees, and velocity, in degrees per second) to a peripheral visual stimulus from a subject in the older group. Following a gap of 100 ms, the peripheral visual stimulus is displayed for 200 ms. The subject's initial saccade begins approximately 350 ms following the onset of the peripheral stimulus. A second corrective saccade is made following the initial saccade; note that, in this example, the eye position following the corrective saccade (indicated as “final fixation”) was used to determine response accuracy.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Proportions of visual stimuli seen at each location are plotted relative to stimulus size (in dB). (A) Responses from each subject. (B) Mean ± SEM for young and older subjects. (C) Frequency of seeing curves for all young subjects; mean curve is indicated by the bold line. (D) Frequency of seeing curves for all older subjects; mean curve is indicated by the bold line.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Frequency of response latencies (in ms) for each stimulus size at each location. Data from young subjects are plotted in white, whereas those from older subjects are plotted in black. Areas of data overlap are indicated by gray shading.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Mean ± SEM of response latency (in ms) for each stimulus size at each location. Data from young subjects are plotted in white, whereas those from older subjects are in black.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Frequency of RLE (in degrees) for each stimulus size at each location. Data from young subjects are plotted in white, whereas those from older subjects are plotted in black. Areas of data overlap are indicated by gray shading. Note that a negative RLE indicates a hypometric response, whereas a positive RLE indicates a hypermetric response.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Mean ± SEM of RLE (in degrees) for each stimulus size at each location. Data from young subjects are plotted in white, whereas those from older subjects are in black. Note that a negative RLE indicates a hypometric response, whereas a positive RLE indicates a hypermetric response.

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