Epidemiologic studies have shown that fiber intake is associated with a lower body weight. Satiety and energy intake are possible explanations for this effect. The purpose of this study was to recommend fiber types and doses that are effective in reducing appetite and energy intake. A systematic review was conducted using the American Dietetic Association's evidence analysis process as a guide. Studies were identified from PubMed and bibliographies of review articles. Studies measuring appetite, food and/or energy intake with a treatment period of ≤24 hours, a reported fiber type and amount, a low- or no-fiber control, and healthy human participants were included. Forty-four publications were identified, from which 107 treatments were analyzed. Thirty-eight fiber sources were identified. The percentage of treatments that significantly reduced subjective appetite rating compared with the control was 39%. The percentage that significantly reduced food or energy intake was 22%. The satiety-enhancing effects of β-glucan, lupin kernel fiber, rye bran, whole grain rye, or a mixed high-fiber diet were supported in more than one publication. Most fibers do not reduce appetite or energy intake in acute study designs. KEY TEACHING POINTS: • Dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight in epidemiologic studies. • Most acute fiber treatments (61%) did not enhance satiety. • Most acute fiber treatments (78%) did not reduce food intake. • Neither fiber type nor fiber dose were related to satiety response or food intake.