The term "spindle cell liposarcoma" has been applied to liposarcomas (LPSs) composed predominantly or exclusively of spindled cells. These tumors have been considered variants of well-differentiated LPS (WDL), myxoid LPS, and spindle cell lipoma, suggesting that this is a heterogenous group of lesions. Using strict morphologic criteria and molecular and immunohistochemical analyses, we have identified a homogenous group of spindle cell lipomatous tumors, histologically and genetically distinct from other forms of LPS, which we have called "fibrosarcoma-like lipomatous neoplasm." Cases classified as "spindle cell LPS" or "low-grade LPS with spindle cell features" were reviewed. Final selection criteria included: (1) an exclusive low-grade spindle cell component resembling fibrosarcoma; (2) a mixture of bland fibroblastic cells resembling the preadipocyte and early-adipocyte stage of embryonic fat; and (3) molecular-genetic analysis that excluded other forms of lipomatous tumors. Of the initial 25 cases identified, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was uninformative in 2 cases; 5 were reclassified as WDL on the basis of molecular data (MDM2 amplification) and 6 as spindle cell lipoma (CGH profiles with a few gains and losses including a constant loss of chromosome 13 and frequent losses of chromosomes 16 and 6). The 12 remaining cases showed flat CGH profiles; of these cases, 11 were negative for DDIT3 gene rearrangements, and 1 result was uninterpretable. Patients ranged in age from 15 to 82 years (mean 50 y); male patients were affected slightly more often (7:5). Tumors arose in the deep (6) and superficial (3) soft tissue of the groin (4), buttock (3), thigh (2), flank (1), shoulder (1), and paratesticular tissue (1) and ranged in size from 2 to 20 cm (mean 7.5 cm). Clinical follow-up in 11 patients (9 mo to 20 y; mean 68 mo) showed no recurrences or metastases. As defined above, "fibrosarcoma-like lipomatous neoplasm" is a unique lipomatous tumor that should be distinguished from WDL/(low-grade) dedifferentiated LPS and myxoid LPS on combined histologic/molecular features because of its better prognosis.