Traumatin- and dinortraumatin-containing galactolipids in Arabidopsis: their formation in tissue-disrupted leaves as counterparts of green leaf volatiles

J Biol Chem. 2013 Sep 6;288(36):26078-26088. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.487959. Epub 2013 Jul 25.


Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) consisting of six-carbon aldehydes, alcohols, and their esters, are biosynthesized through the action of fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), which uses fatty acid hydroperoxides as substrates. GLVs form immediately after disruption of plant leaf tissues by herbivore attacks and mechanical wounding and play a role in defense against attackers that attempt to invade through the wounds. The fates and the physiological significance of the counterparts of the HPL reaction, the 12/10-carbon oxoacids that are formed from 18/16-carbon fatty acid 13-/11-hydroperoxides, respectively, are largely unknown. In this study, we detected monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDGs) containing the 12/10-carbon HPL products in disrupted leaf tissues of Arabidopsis, cabbage, tobacco, tomato, and common bean. They were identified as an MGDG containing 12-oxo-9-hydroxy-(E)-10-dodecenoic acid and 10-oxo-7-hydroxy-(E)-8-decenoic acid and an MGDG containing two 12-oxo-9-hydroxy-(E)-10-dodecenoic acids as their acyl groups. Analyses of Arabidopsis mutants lacking HPL indicated that these MGDGs were formed enzymatically through an active HPL reaction. Thus, our results suggested that in disrupted leaf tissues, MGDG-hydroperoxides were cleaved by HPL to form volatile six-carbon aldehydes and non-volatile 12/10-carbon aldehyde-containing galactolipids. Based on these results, we propose a novel oxylipin pathway that does not require the lipase reaction to form GLVs.

Keywords: Glycolipids; Green Leaf Volatiles; Hydroperoxide Lyase; Lipid Peroxidation; Lipoxygenase Pathway; Mass Spectrometry (MS); Plant Biochemistry.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aldehyde-Lyases / genetics
  • Aldehyde-Lyases / metabolism
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism
  • Brassica / genetics
  • Brassica / metabolism
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism
  • Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated / metabolism*
  • Galactolipids / genetics
  • Galactolipids / metabolism*
  • Nicotiana / genetics
  • Nicotiana / metabolism
  • Oils, Volatile / metabolism*
  • Oxylipins / metabolism*
  • Phaseolus / genetics
  • Phaseolus / metabolism
  • Plant Leaves / genetics
  • Plant Leaves / metabolism*
  • Solanum lycopersicum / genetics
  • Solanum lycopersicum / metabolism


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated
  • Galactolipids
  • Oils, Volatile
  • Oxylipins
  • traumatin
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Aldehyde-Lyases
  • hydroperoxide lyase