Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a key activator of signaling pathways downstream of multiple surface receptors implicated in asthma. SYK function has been extensively studied in mast cells downstream of the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεR1. Preclinical studies have demonstrated a role for SYK in models of allergic inflammation, but a role in airway constriction has not been demonstrated. Here, we have used a potent and selective pharmacological inhibitor of SYK to determine the role of SYK in allergen-mediated inflammation and airway constriction in preclinical models. Attenuation of allergic airway responses was evaluated in a rat passive anaphylaxis model and rat and sheep inhaled allergen challenge models, as well as an ex vivo model of allergen-mediated airway constriction in rats and cynomolgus monkeys. Pharmacological inhibition of SYK dose-dependently blocked IgE-mediated tracheal plasma extravasation in rats. In a rat ovalbumin-sensitized airway challenge model, oral dosing with an SYK inhibitor led to a dose-dependent reduction in lung inflammatory cells. Ex vivo analysis of allergen-induced airway constriction in ovalbumin-sensitized brown Norway rats showed a complete attenuation with treatment of a SYK inhibitor, as well as a complete block of allergen-induced serotonin release. Similarly, allergen-mediated airway constriction was attenuated in ex vivo studies from nonhuman primate lungs. Intravenous administration of an SYK inhibitor attenuated both early- and late-phase allergen-induced increases in airway resistance in an Ascaris-sensitive sheep allergen challenge model. These data support a key role for SYK signaling in mediating allergic airway responses.