The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the causative agent of furunculosis, a systemic disease of fish in the salmonid family. Furunculosis is a ubiquitous disease that affects aquaculture operations worldwide and is characterized by high mortality and morbidity. A better understanding of the bacterium is required to find a cure. Thereby, this review centers on A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, its major virulence factors, and its genome. The classification and characteristics of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the virulence factors, such as the A-layer, extracellular molecules, and type three secretion system as well as the characteristics and plasticity of its genome are described.
Keywords: Aeromonas salmonicida; Antibiotic resistance; Furunculosis; Genome; Insertion sequences; Plasmid; Type three secretion system; Virulence.
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