Oxidative stress in adolescent passive smokers living in urban and rural environments

Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2014 Mar;217(2-3):287-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2013.06.008. Epub 2013 Jul 8.


Purpose of this study was to study the oxidative stress status through the urinary 15-F(2t)-isoprostane (15-F(2t)-isoP) among a group of 168 adolescents, differently exposed to passive tobacco smoke. Subjects were enrolled, with written informed consent, between two populations of students living and attending school in two areas with different levels of urbanization in Piedmont Region, North-Western Italy. A general linear model (GLM) analysis was performed to evaluate the role of air pollution, dependent from selected degree of urbanization and of passive exposure to tobacco smoke, quantified through cotinine, in the synthesis of 15-F(2t)-isoP, measured with ELISA technique. Formaldehyde (FA) concentration in air was also evaluated as a primary confounding factor in oxidative stress but no significant differences between the two sites were found. Conversely, direct relationship between oxidative stress status and residence of adolescents was found: oxidative stress level was 31% higher for adolescents living in Chivasso (urban site) than for those living in Casalborgone (countryside area). Furthermore, also passive tobacco smoke exposure proved to play another important direct role in the distribution of 15-F(2t)-isoP levels (p<0.0001). Lastly, an inversely proportional relationship was found between the age of adolescents and 15-F(2t)-isoP (p<0.0001). Finally, the detection of such a sensitive biological response as a consequence of limited differences of environmental pollution and exposure to tobacco smoke passively breathed could provide new and useful knowledge for the appraisal of preventive strategies, particularly for young subjects.

Keywords: 15-F(2t)-isoprostane; Adolescents; Oxidative stress; Passive tobacco smoke; Urban pollution.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Biomarkers / urine
  • Child
  • Cotinine / urine
  • Dinoprost / analogs & derivatives*
  • Dinoprost / biosynthesis
  • Dinoprost / urine
  • Environmental Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Environmental Exposure / analysis
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Formaldehyde / analysis
  • Humans
  • Italy
  • Male
  • Oxidative Stress*
  • Rural Population*
  • Smoking
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects*
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / analysis
  • Urban Population*
  • Urbanization*


  • Biomarkers
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution
  • Formaldehyde
  • 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha
  • Dinoprost
  • Cotinine