EUS-guided coil versus cyanoacrylate therapy for the treatment of gastric varices: a multicenter study (with videos)

Gastrointest Endosc. 2013 Nov;78(5):711-21. doi: 10.1016/j.gie.2013.05.009. Epub 2013 Jul 25.


Background: Therapy of gastric varices (GV) is still challenging. Cyanoacrylate (CYA) injection is the recommended treatment for bleeding GV, but has a known adverse event rate, which could be reduced if EUS is used for guidance. Otherwise, EUS-guided coil application (ECA) may be an alternative.

Objectives: To compare CYA and ECA embolization of feeding GV for feasibility, safety, and applicability.

Design: Retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database.

Setting: Multicenter study, tertiary referral centers.

Patients and interventions: Thirty consecutive patients with localized GV who received either CYA injection or ECA were included with follow-up for 6 months after treatment.

Results: There were 11 patients in the coil group and 19 patients in the CYA group. The GV obliteration rate was 94.7% CYA versus 90.9% ECA; mean number of endoscopy sessions was 1.4 ± 0.1 (range 1-3). Adverse events occurred in 12 of 30 patients (40%) (CYA, 11/19 [57.9%]; ECA, 1/11 [9.1%]; P < .01); only 3 were symptomatic, and an additional 9 (CYA group) had glue embolism on a CT scan but was asymptomatic. No further adverse events occurred during follow-up. Six patients (20%) died unrelated to the procedures or bleeding.

Limitations: Nonrandomized; EUS expertise necessary.

Conclusions: EUS-guided therapy for GV by using CYA or ECA is effective in localized GV. ECA required fewer endoscopies and tended to have fewer adverse events compared with CYA injection. Larger comparative studies are needed to prove these data.

Keywords: B-RTO; CYA; ECA; EUS-guided coils application; GV; TIPS; balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration; cyanoacrylate; gastric varices; transjugular portosystemic shunt.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study
  • Video-Audio Media

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cyanoacrylates / therapeutic use*
  • Embolization, Therapeutic / instrumentation
  • Embolization, Therapeutic / methods*
  • Endosonography / methods*
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / complications
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / therapy*
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / therapy*
  • Hemostasis, Endoscopic / methods*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Ultrasonography, Interventional / methods*


  • Cyanoacrylates