Purpose: Lung cancer is one of the most common non-AIDS-defining malignancies among HIV-infected patients. The incidence of lung cancer has significantly increased in the HIV-positive population in recent years. The purpose of this study was to summarize the incidence and risk of lung cancer in published population-based studies of people with HIV/AIDS.
Methods: Published literature from PubMed, Embase, the Web of Science, and Google Scholar was retrieved. Sixty-five publications were selected and assessed for the following parameters: research coverage and location; continent; study period; duration of follow-up; lung cancer cases; HIV cases; incidence rate; and overall SIR or adjusted IRR. In addition, the risk of lung cancer was compared based on age, gender, HIV exposure category, CD4 count, and periods with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
Results: Lung cancer risk was greater among HIV-infected individuals compared with the general population. SIRs or adjusted IRRs were 1.5-3.4 in Europe, 0.7-6.9 in the USA, and 5.0 in Africa. Most, but not all studies did not observe a significant change in the incidence and risk of lung cancer between the pre-HAART and HAART eras. In most studies, the risk of lung cancer was higher among women, younger individuals, and injection drug users (IDUs), but the incidence of lung cancer was higher among men and the elderly. No significant trend in lung cancer risk across CD4 cell count categories was reported among the selected articles.
Conclusion: Our study suggests an increase in the incidence and risk of lung cancer in HIV/AIDS population is worldwide. The effect of HAART on the incidence and risk of lung cancer is in dispute. The risk of lung cancer based on gender differences, especially among females, as well as IDUs, requires further investigation.