Glutarate, a side-product in the metabolism of tryptophan and lysine, is metabolized by conversion to glutaryl-CoA by a transferase using succinyl-CoA as a coenzyme donor. The enzyme catalyzing this conversion has not been formally identified. However, a benign form of glutaric aciduria (glutaric aciduria type III) is due to mutations in C7orf10, a putative member of the coenzyme A transferase class III family. In the present work, we show that recombinant human C7orf10 catalyzes the succinyl-CoA-dependent conversion of glutarate to glutaryl-CoA. C7orf10 could use many dicarboxylic acids as CoA acceptors, the best ones being glutarate, succinate, adipate, and 3-hydroxymethylglutarate. Confocal microscopy analysis of CHO cells transfected with a C7orf10-GFP fusion protein indicated that C7orf10 is a mitochondrial protein, in agreement with the presence of a predicted mitochondrial propeptide at its N-terminus. The effect of a missense mutation (p.Arg336Trp) found in the homozygous state in several patients with glutaric aciduria type III and present in the general population at a low frequency was also investigated. The p.Arg336Trp mutation led to the production of insoluble and inactive C7orf10 both in Escherichia coli and in HEK293T cells. These findings indicate that C7orf10 is implicated in the metabolism of glutarate, but possibly also of longer dicarboxylic acids. Homologues of this enzyme are found in numerous bacterial operons comprising also a putative glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase, indicating that an enzyme with similar specificity exists in prokaryotes.