Intranasal vaccination with an inactivated whole influenza virus vaccine induces strong antibody responses in serum and nasal mucus of healthy adults

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013 Sep;9(9):1962-70. doi: 10.4161/hv.25458. Epub 2013 Jun 27.


Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) titers as well as haemagglutinin (HA) specific antibody responses were examined in 50 healthy adults aged between 22 and 69 y old after two intranasal administrations of an inactivated whole virus vaccine derived from A/Victoria/210/2009 virus (45 μg HA per dose) at 3 week intervals. Serum HI titers after two-doses of the nasal vaccine showed>2.5-fold rise in the ratio of geometric mean titer upon vaccination,>40% of subjects with a ≥ 4-fold increase in titer and>70% of subjects with a titer of ≥ 1:40, all parameters associated with an effective outcome of vaccination in the criteria defined by the European Medicines Agency. Serum neutralizing antibody responses correlated with HI antibody responses, although NT titers were about 2-fold higher than HI titers. These high levels of serum responses were accompanied by high levels of HI and neutralizing antibody responses in nasal mucus as measured in concentrated nasal wash samples that were about 10 times diluted compared with natural nasal mucus. Serum and nasal HI and neutralizing antibody responses consisted of HA-specific IgG and IgA antibody responses, with IgG and IgA antibodies being dominant in serum and nasal responses, respectively.

Keywords: haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody; healthy adult volunteer; influenza virus; intranasal vaccination; neutralizing antibody.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Adult
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing / blood
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood*
  • Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Mucosal*
  • Immunoglobulin A / analysis
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Influenza, Human / immunology
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control*
  • Nasal Mucosa / immunology*
  • Neutralization Tests
  • Orthomyxoviridae / immunology
  • Vaccination / methods
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / immunology


  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Inactivated