Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 4, 92

Traditional Medicines and Globalization: Current and Future Perspectives in Ethnopharmacology


Traditional Medicines and Globalization: Current and Future Perspectives in Ethnopharmacology

Marco Leonti et al. Front Pharmacol.


The ethnopharmacological approach toward the understanding and appraisal of traditional and herbal medicines is characterized by the inclusions of the social as well as the natural sciences. Anthropological field-observations describing the local use of nature-derived medicines are the basis for ethnopharmacological enquiries. The multidisciplinary scientific validation of indigenous drugs is of relevance to modern societies at large and helps to sustain local health care practices. Especially with respect to therapies related to aging related, chronic and infectious diseases traditional medicines offer promising alternatives to biomedicine. Bioassays applied in ethnopharmacology represent the molecular characteristics and complexities of the disease or symptoms for which an indigenous drug is used in "traditional" medicine to variable depth and extent. One-dimensional in vitro approaches rarely cope with the complexity of human diseases and ignore the concept of polypharmacological synergies. The recent focus on holistic approaches and systems biology in medicinal plant research represents the trend toward the description and the understanding of complex multi-parameter systems. Ethnopharmacopoeias are non-static cultural constructs shaped by belief and knowledge systems. Intensified globalization and economic liberalism currently accelerates the interchange between local and global pharmacopoeias via international trade, television, the World Wide Web and print media. The increased infiltration of newly generated biomedical knowledge and introduction of "foreign" medicines into local pharmacopoeias leads to syncretic developments and generates a feedback loop. While modern and post-modern cultures and knowledge systems adapt and transform the global impact, they become more relevant for ethnopharmacology. Moreover, what is traditional, alternative or complementary medicine depends on the adopted historic-cultural perspective.

Keywords: global economy; globalization; knowledge transmission; medical pluralism; syncretism; traditional medicines.


A fair price for medicine – does it exist?

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 31 articles

See all "Cited by" articles


    1. Adams M., Alther W., Kessler M., Kluge M., Hamburger M. (2011a). Malaria in the Renaissance: remedies from European herbals from the 16th and 17th century. J. Ethnopharmacol. 133 278–288 10.1016/j.jep.2010.10.060 - DOI - PubMed
    1. Adams M., Gschwind S., Zimmermann S., Kaiser M., Hamburger M. (2011b). Renaissance remedies: antiplasmodial protostane triterpenoids from Alisma plantago-aquatica L. (Alismataceae). J. Ethnopharmacol. 135 43–47 10.1016/j.jep.2011.02.026 - DOI - PubMed
    1. Aggarwal B. B., Prasad S., Reuter S., Kannappan R., Yadev V. R., Park B., et al. (2011). Identification of novel anti-inflammatory agents from Ayurvedic medicine for prevention of chronic diseases: “reverse pharmacology” and “bedside to bench” approach. Curr. Drug Targets 12 1595–1653 - PMC - PubMed
    1. Anand P., Kunnumakkara A. B., Newman R. A., Aggarwal B. B. (2007). Bioavailability of curcumin: problems and promises. Mol. Pharm. 4 807–818 10.1021/mp700113r - DOI - PubMed
    1. Anonymous. (1879). Calcutta Medical College. Lancet 114 558 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)47909-3 - DOI

LinkOut - more resources