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, 4 (1), 111-22

Luteocirrhus Shearii Gen. Sp. Nov. (Diaporthales, Cryphonectriaceae) Pathogenic to Proteaceae in the South Western Australian Floristic Region

Affiliations

Luteocirrhus Shearii Gen. Sp. Nov. (Diaporthales, Cryphonectriaceae) Pathogenic to Proteaceae in the South Western Australian Floristic Region

Colin Crane et al. IMA Fungus.

Abstract

Morphological and DNA sequence characteristics of a pathogenic fungus isolated from branch cankers in Proteaceae of the South West Australian Floristic Region elucidated a new genus and species within Cryphonectriaceae (Diaporthales). The pathogen has been isolated from canker lesions in several Banksia species and Lambertia echinata subsp. citrina, and is associated with a serious decline of the rare B. verticillata. Lack of orange pigment in all observed structures except cirrhi, combined with pulvinate to globose black semi-immersed conidiomata with paraphyses, distinguishes the canker fungus from other genera of Cryphonectriaceae. This was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis of the ITS regions, β-tubulin, and LSU genes. The fungus (sexual morph unknown) is described as Luteocirrhus shearii gen. sp. nov. Lesions in seedlings of Banksia spp. following wound inoculation and subsequent recovery confirm Koch's postulates for pathogenicity. This pathogen of native Proteaceae is currently an emerging threat, particularly toward B. baxteri and B. verticillata.

Keywords: Australia; Banksia; Canker; Cryphonectriaceae; Emerging pathogen; Fungal pathogen; Natural ecosystems; Phylogenetics; Proteaceae; Zythiostroma.

Figures

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.
A. Young canker of Luteocirrhus shearii in petiole scar of Banksia baxteri. B. Multiple branch death impact in Banksia grandis.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.
Distribution of Luteocirrhus shearii from cankered branches in the South Western Australian Floristic Region.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.
Luteocirrhus shearii (PERTH 08355274). A. Conidiomata with cirrhi. B. Vertical section of conidiomata. C. Horizontal cross section of conidiomata. D. Paraphyses protruding from hymenium. E. Conidiomatal tissue of textura globosa. F. Conidia. Bars A = 1 mm; B and D = 100 μm; C and E = 10 μm; and F = 5 μm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.
Radial growth rates of two isolates of Luteocirrhus shearii on half-strength potato dextrose medium.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.
One of 125 most parsimonious trees of 92 steps based on analysis of LSU gene region. Bootstrap values are given above the line. Trees are rooted to Diaporthe eres and D. fibrosa.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.
One of 172 most parsimonious trees of 1041 steps based on analysis of combined DNA sequence data set of gene regions of the partial exon 4, exon 5, exon 6 and exon 7 of the BT genes, and the ITS gene region. Bootstrap values are given above the line. The trees are rooted to Diaporthe ambigua.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.
Mean (± standard error) visible lesion growth rates of Luteocirrhus shearii following stem wound inoculation of four Banksia hosts. Wounds healed over in control inoculations.

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