Risk of AIDS-defining cancers among HIV-1-infected patients in France between 1992 and 2009: results from the FHDH-ANRS CO4 cohort

Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Dec;57(11):1638-47. doi: 10.1093/cid/cit497. Epub 2013 Jul 29.


Background: We examined trends in the incidence of the 3 AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs; Kaposi sarcoma [KS], non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL], and cervical cancer) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients relative to the general population between 1992 and 2009 in France, focusing on age at ADC diagnosis and on patients with controlled viral load and restored immunity on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).

Methods: Age- and sex-standardized incidence rates were estimated in patients enrolled in the French hospital database on HIV, and in the general population in France during 4 calendar periods (1992-1996, 1997-2000, 2001-2004, and 2005-2009). Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for all periods and separately for patients on cART, with CD4 counts ≥500 cells/µL for at least 2 years and viral load ≤500 copies/mL.

Results: Although the incidence of ADCs fell significantly across the calendar periods, the risk remained constantly higher in HIV-infected patients than in the general population. In patients with restored immunity, the relative risk remained significantly elevated for KS (SIR = 35.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 18.3-61.9), and was similar to that of the general population for NHL (SIR = 1.0; 95% CI, .4-1.8). ADCs were diagnosed at a younger age in HIV-infected patients, with a particularly marked difference for NHL (-11.3 years, P < .0001).

Conclusions: The incidence of all ADCs continued to fall, including cervical cancer, in the cART period, but the risk remained higher than in the general population in 2005-2009. In patients with stably restored immunity, KS remained significantly more frequent than in the general population.

Keywords: HIV; aging; cancer; restored immunity; risk.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • France / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • HIV-1 / isolation & purification*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Neoplasms / virology*
  • Prospective Studies


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents