Lower urinary tract symptoms following female genital mutilation

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013 Oct;123(1):21-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2013.06.010. Epub 2013 Jul 27.


Objective: To estimate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following female genital mutilation (FGM).

Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1, 2009, through January 1, 2012, at the urogynecology clinic of Sohag University Hospital. The participants were 251 women who had undergone different forms of FGM.

Results: A total of 251 women agreed to participate. All had the clitoris amputated, 7.1% had some form of mutilation to the labia majora, 33.8% had adhesions of the labia minora, 19.2% had clitoral retention cysts, and 38.8% reported at least 1 LUTS. Nocturia (38.6%) was the most prevalent LUTS, intermittency (23.5%) was the most prevalent voiding LUTS, and incomplete voiding (22.7%) was the most common post-micturition LUTS. All 3 types of LUTS were reported by 11.6% of the women. Those with Type II and Type III FGM had a significantly higher risk of having all 3 LUTS than those with Type I.

Conclusion: Women with FGM are significantly more likely to have LUTS than women without FGM, and LUTS seem to be more burdensome in those with more extensive FGM.

Keywords: Egypt; Female genital mutilation; Lower urinary tract symptoms.

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Circumcision, Female / adverse effects*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Egypt / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Hospitals, University
  • Humans
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms / epidemiology
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms / etiology*
  • Nocturia / epidemiology
  • Nocturia / etiology*
  • Prevalence
  • Urinary Retention / etiology*