Polarized light microscopy in reproductive and developmental biology

Mol Reprod Dev. Jul-Aug 2015;82(7-8):548-62. doi: 10.1002/mrd.22221. Epub 2013 Aug 26.


The polarized light microscope reveals orientational order in native molecular structures inside living cells, tissues, and whole organisms. It is a powerful tool used to monitor and analyze the early developmental stages of organisms that lend themselves to microscopic observations. In this article, we briefly discuss the components specific to a traditional polarizing microscope and some historically important observations on: chromosome packing in the sperm head, the first zygote division of the sea urchin, and differentiation initiated by the first asymmetric cell division in the sand dollar. We then introduce the LC-PolScope and describe its use for measuring birefringence and polarized fluorescence in living cells and tissues. Applications range from the enucleation of mouse oocytes to analyzing the polarized fluorescence of the water strider acrosome. We end with new results on the birefringence of the developing chick brain, which we analyzed between developmental stages of days 12-20.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Division
  • Embryology / instrumentation*
  • Embryology / methods*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Microscopy, Polarization
  • Sperm Head / metabolism
  • Zygote / cytology
  • Zygote / metabolism