Global aspects of pacC regulation of pathogenicity genes in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides as revealed by transcriptome analysis

Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2013 Nov;26(11):1345-58. doi: 10.1094/MPMI-03-13-0080-R.


Colletotrichum gloeosporioides alkalinizes its surroundings during colonization of host tissue. The transcription factor pacC is a regulator of pH-controlled genes and is essential for successful colonization. We present here the sequence assembly of the Colletotrichum fruit pathogen and use it to explore the global regulation of pathogenicity by ambient pH. The assembled genome size was 54 Mb, encoding 18,456 genes. Transcriptomes of the wild type and ΔpacC mutant were established by RNA-seq and explored for their global pH-dependent gene regulation. The analysis showed that pacC upregulates 478 genes and downregulates 483 genes, comprising 5% of the fungal genome, including transporters, antioxidants, and cell-wall-degrading enzymes. Interestingly, gene families with similar functionality are both up- and downregulated by pacC. Global analysis of secreted genes showed significant pacC activation of degradative enzymes at alkaline pH and during fruit infection. Select genes from alkalizing-type pathogen C. gloeosporioides and from acidifying-type pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were verified by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis at different pH values. Knock out of several pacC-activated genes confirmed their involvement in pathogenic colonization of alkalinized surroundings. The results suggest a global regulation by pacC of key pathogenicity genes during pH change in alkalinizing and acidifying pathogens.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Colletotrichum / enzymology
  • Colletotrichum / genetics*
  • Colletotrichum / pathogenicity
  • Down-Regulation
  • Fruit / genetics
  • Fruit / metabolism
  • Fruit / microbiology
  • Fungal Proteins / genetics*
  • Fungal Proteins / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal*
  • Gene Knockout Techniques
  • Genome, Fungal / genetics*
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Molecular Sequence Annotation
  • Multigene Family
  • Persea / microbiology
  • Plant Diseases / microbiology*
  • Sequence Analysis, RNA
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Species Specificity
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Transcriptome*
  • Virulence Factors


  • Fungal Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Virulence Factors