Serum adiponectin helps to differentiate type 1 and type 2 diabetes among young Asian Indians

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2013 Aug;15(8):696-702. doi: 10.1089/dia.2012.0306. Epub 2013 Jul 31.


Objective: This study assessed whether serum adiponectin could be used as a biochemical marker to differentiate type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among young Asian Indians.

Research design and methods: We recruited age- and sex-matched individuals with physician-diagnosed T1DM (n=70) and T2DM (n=72). All were 12-27 years of age with a duration of diabetes of >2 years, at a large tertiary-care diabetes center in Chennai, southern India. Age- and sex-matched individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=68) were selected from an ongoing population study. NGT was defined using World Health Organization criteria. Serum total adiponectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify adiponectin cut points for discriminating T1DM from T2DM.

Results: Adiponectin levels were higher in T1DM and lower in T2DM compared with the NGT group (9.89, 3.88, and 6.84 μg/mL, respectively; P<0.001). In standardized polytomous regression models, adiponectin was associated with T1DM (odds ratio [OR]=1.131 per SD; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.025-1.249) and T2DM (OR=0.628 per SD; 95% CI, 0.504-0.721) controlled for age, gender, waist circumference, body mass index, hypertension, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, family history of T2DM, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Using ROC analysis, an adiponectin cut point of 5.1 μg/mL had a C statistic of 0.886 (95% CI, 0.836-0.953), sensitivity of 80.6%, and specificity of 80.6% to differentiate T1DM from T2DM. Using the 5.1 μg/mL cut point, 80.6% of T1DM and 81.8% of T2DM would be correctly classified.

Conclusions: Serum adiponectin is a useful biochemical marker for differentiating T1DM and T2DM among young Asian Indians.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adiponectin / blood*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Asian People
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Body Mass Index
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / diagnosis*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • India
  • Male
  • Overweight / complications
  • ROC Curve
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Young Adult


  • ADIPOQ protein, human
  • Adiponectin
  • Biomarkers
  • Hypoglycemic Agents