Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common in HIV-positive individuals. Although HBV vaccination is mandatory for HIV-positive individuals with negative-HBV markers, lower rates of protection are achieved. HIV infection accelerates the course of liver disease caused by chronic HBV infection, leading to end-stage hepatic illness and increasing the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Anti-HBV active agents, especially tenofovir, improve outcomes. Lamivudine alone should be limited to patients with low serum HBV-DNA levels, since selection of drug resistance often compromises long-term benefits, leads to cross-resistance with other antivirals, and favors the potential emergence of HBV-vaccine escape mutants.
Keywords: Drug resistance; HBV vaccine; HBV-HIV coinfection; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Lamivudine; Liver fibrosis; Tenofovir.
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