Quality of education and memory test performance in older men: the New York University Paragraph Recall Test normative data

Curr Alzheimer Res. 2013 Sep;10(7):776-83. doi: 10.2174/15672050113109990140.


Objectives: Memory evaluation is a key component in the accurate diagnosis of cognitive disorders.One memory procedure that has shown promise in discriminating disease-related cognitive decline from normal cognitive aging is the New York University Paragraph Recall Test; however, the effects of education have been unexamined as they pertain to one's literacy level. The current study provides normative data stratified by estimated quality of education as indexed by irregular word reading skill.

Method: Conventional norms were derived from a sample (N = 385) of cognitively intact elderly men who were initially recruited for participation in the PREADViSE clinical trial. A series of multiple linear regression models were constructed to assess the influence of demographic variables on mean NYU Paragraph Immediate and Delayed Recall scores.

Results: Test version, assessment site, and estimated quality of education were significant predictors of performance on the NYU Paragraph Recall Test. Findings indicate that estimated quality of education is a better predictor of memory performance than ethnicity and years of total education. Normative data stratified according to estimated quality of education are presented.

Discussion: The current study provides evidence and support for normativedata stratified by quality of education as opposed to years of education.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00040378.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Databases, Factual*
  • Educational Status*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Memory / physiology
  • Mental Recall* / physiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests*
  • New York
  • Psychomotor Performance* / physiology
  • Universities*

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00040378