Ketamine alters oscillatory coupling in the hippocampus

Sci Rep. 2013:3:2348. doi: 10.1038/srep02348.


Recent studies show that higher order oscillatory interactions such as cross-frequency coupling are important for brain functions that are impaired in schizophrenia, including perception, attention and memory. Here we investigated the dynamics of oscillatory coupling in the hippocampus of awake rats upon NMDA receptor blockade by ketamine, a pharmacological model of schizophrenia. Ketamine (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg i.p.) increased gamma and high-frequency oscillations (HFO) in all depths of the CA1-dentate axis, while theta power changes depended on anatomical location and were independent of a transient increase of delta oscillations. Phase coherence of gamma and HFO increased across hippocampal layers. Phase-amplitude coupling between theta and fast oscillations was markedly altered in a dose-dependent manner: ketamine increased hippocampal theta-HFO coupling at all doses, while theta-gamma coupling increased at the lowest dose and was disrupted at the highest dose. Our results demonstrate that ketamine alters network interactions that underlie cognitively relevant theta-gamma coupling.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Clocks / drug effects
  • Biological Clocks / physiology*
  • Brain Waves / drug effects
  • Brain Waves / physiology*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Hippocampus / drug effects
  • Hippocampus / physiology*
  • Ketamine / administration & dosage*
  • Male
  • Nerve Net / drug effects
  • Nerve Net / physiology*
  • Neural Pathways / drug effects
  • Neural Pathways / physiology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / antagonists & inhibitors*


  • Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
  • Ketamine