Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in HIV-infected children and young adults

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Nov;32(11):1240-4. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3182a735ed.


Background: Vitamin D insufficiency and HIV infection are both risk factors for chronic disorders, so it is important to consider vitamin D status in HIV-infected patients.

Methods: We prospectively investigated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations, determined by radioimmunoassay, in 113 HIV-infected children (age≤24 years) and 54 healthy controls matched for age and phototype. We assessed the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency (VDD and VDI) defined as 25(OH)D titers of <10 ng/mL and between 10 and 30 ng/mL, respectively, and their predictive factors.

Results: The overall prevalence of VDD and VDI was 38.9% and 58.7%, respectively. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly higher in the HIV group than the control group (14.2±6.9 ng/mL vs. 10.4±5 ng/mL, P<0.001). Variables significantly associated with low serum 25(OH)D concentrations in HIV-infected children were dark phototype (P<0.001) and age (r=-0.19, P=0.03). Patients receiving efavirenz had a trend toward lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations (11.1±4.6 ng/mL vs. 14.6±7 ng/mL, P=0.1). Dark phototype was the only independent risk factor for VDD in HIV-infected children (odds ratio=14.6; 95% confidence interval: 2.4-89.9, P=0.004).

Conclusions: VDD and VDI were common in both HIV-infected and control groups, and serum 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly lower in controls than in HIV-infected children.

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Skin Pigmentation
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency* / complications
  • Vitamin D Deficiency* / epidemiology


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D