Activity of the plant-based repellent, TT-4302 against the ticks Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae)

Exp Appl Acarol. 2014 Jan;62(1):105-13. doi: 10.1007/s10493-013-9719-1. Epub 2013 Aug 2.


The plant-based repellent TT-4302 (5 % geraniol) was compared to deet (15 %) in laboratory two-choice bioassays against the ticks Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. At 2.5 and 3.5 h after treatment of filter paper with TT-4302, 100 % repellency was observed for all species at both time points with the exception of I. scapularis at the 3.5 h evaluation where repellency was 95.8 %. Deet was 100 % repellent at both time points for D. variabilis and R. sanguineus and was 100 % repellent at the 2.5 h evaluation for I. scapularis. Repellency of deet to A. americanum was 88.9 and 95.8 % at 2.5 and 3.5 h, respectively which was not significantly different than that of TT-4302. No significant difference against I. scapularis was observed between TT-4302 and deet at 3.5 h after treatment where deet was 87.5 % repellent. A variant of TT-4302, TT-4228 was tested in the laboratory against A. americanum and was compared to deet (15 %) in field trials against wild populations of ticks in North Carolina, USA. In the laboratory, TT-4228 was 94.4 and 87.5 % repellent at 2.5 and 3.5 h after treatment, respectively. In the field where the predominant tick species was A. americanum, significantly fewer ticks were collected from socks worn by human volunteers that were treated with TT-4228 compared to those treated with deet 2.5 or 3.5 h after treatment. Significantly fewer ticks were recovered from socks treated with TT-4228 than their paired untreated controls 2.5 or 3.5 h after treatment and repellencies were 90 and 70 %, respectively. Fewer ticks were collected from deet-treated compared to their paired untreated socks 2.5 h after application; however, no significant difference was found in the number of ticks collected from deet-and untreated socks 3.5 h after treatment.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Choice Behavior / drug effects*
  • DEET
  • Female
  • Ixodidae / drug effects*
  • Male
  • Terpenes / pharmacology*


  • TT-4302
  • Terpenes
  • DEET