Influence of pulse ratio on codeposition of copper species with calcium phosphate coatings on titanium by means of electrochemically assisted deposition

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2014 Jan;102(1):160-72. doi: 10.1002/jbm.b.32992. Epub 2013 Aug 1.


Aim of this study was to combine the well-known biocompatibility and ostoeconductivity of thin calcium phosphate coatings on titanium with proangiogenic signals from codeposited copper species. Copper species could be integrated in mineral layers based on hydroxyapatite by means of electrochemically assisted deposition from electrolytes containing calcium, phosphate, and copper ions. Different combinations of duration and intensity of galvanostatic pulses result in different amounts of deposited calcium phosphate and of copper species even for the same applied total charge. Absolute amounts of copper varied between 2.1 and 6.9 μg/cm², and the copper was distributed homogeneously as shown by EDX mapping. The presence of copper did not change the crystalline phase of deposited calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) but provoked a significant decrease in deposited amounts by factor 3 to 4. The copper was deposited mainly as Cu(I) species with a minor fraction of basic copper phosphates. Reduction of copper occurred not only at the surface of titanium but also within the hydroxyapatite coating due to the reaction with hydrogen produced by the electrolysis of water during the cathodic polarization of the substrate.

Keywords: ECAD; calcium phosphate(s); coating(s); copper; pulsed deposition.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Calcium Phosphates / chemistry*
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible / chemistry*
  • Copper / chemistry*
  • Durapatite / chemistry
  • Electrochemical Techniques
  • Electrolytes
  • Humans
  • Materials Testing
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Osseointegration
  • Prostheses and Implants
  • Surface Properties
  • Titanium / chemistry*


  • Calcium Phosphates
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible
  • Electrolytes
  • Copper
  • Durapatite
  • calcium phosphate
  • Titanium