Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily ligands regulate many aspects of cell identity, function, and survival in multicellular animals. Genes encoding five TGF-β family members are present in the genome of C. elegans. Two of the ligands, DBL-1 and DAF-7, signal through a canonical receptor-Smad signaling pathway; while a third ligand, UNC-129, interacts with a noncanonical signaling pathway. No function has yet been associated with the remaining two ligands. Here we summarize these signaling pathways and their biological functions.