Enterobacter sp. strain R4-368 is one of the few characterized Jatropha endophytic diazotrophic bacteria and was isolated from surface-sterilized roots. This bacterium shows strong growth-promoting effects, being able to increase plant biomass and seed yields. Enterobacter sp. R4-368 is the second fully sequenced diazotrophic Enterobacter species. The sequence information shall facilitate the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of plant growth promotion, nitrogen fixation in nonlegume plant species, and evolution of biological nitrogen fixation systems.