Repair of large osteochondral defects in a beagle model with a novel type I collagen/glycosaminoglycan-porous titanium biphasic scaffold

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2013 Oct;33(7):3951-7. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2013.05.040. Epub 2013 May 25.


The limited repair potential of articular cartilage, which hardly heals after injury or debilitating osteoarthritis, is a clinical challenge. The aim of this work was to develop a novel type I collagen (Col)/glycosaminoglycan (GAGs)-porous titanium biphasic scaffold (CGT) and verify its ability to repair osteochondral defects in an animal model with bone marrow stem cells (bMSCs) in the chondral phase. The biphasic scaffold was composed of Col/GAGs as chondral phasic and porous titanium as subchondral phasic. Twenty-four full-thickness defects through the articular cartilage and into the subchondral bone were prepared by drilling into the surface of the femoral patellar groove. Animals were assigned to one of the three groups: 1) CGT with bMSCs (CGTM), 2) only CGT, and 3) no implantation (control). The defect areas were examined grossly, histologically and by micro-CT. The most satisfied cartilage repairing result was in the CGTM group, while CGT alone was better than the control group. Abundant subchondral bone formation was observed in the CGTM and CGT groups but not the control group. Our findings demonstrate that a composite based on a novel biphasic scaffold combined with bMSCs shows a high potential to repair large osteochondral defects in a canine model.

Keywords: Biphasic scaffold; Glycosaminoglycans; Osteochondral defect; Porous titanium; Repair; Type I collagen.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Marrow Cells / cytology
  • Bone Marrow Cells / drug effects
  • Cartilage, Articular / diagnostic imaging
  • Cartilage, Articular / drug effects
  • Cartilage, Articular / pathology*
  • Cattle
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Collagen Type I / pharmacology*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dogs
  • Glycosaminoglycans / pharmacology*
  • Male
  • Porosity
  • Staining and Labeling
  • Stem Cells / cytology
  • Stem Cells / drug effects
  • Tissue Scaffolds / chemistry*
  • Titanium / pharmacology*
  • Wound Healing / drug effects*
  • X-Ray Microtomography


  • Collagen Type I
  • Glycosaminoglycans
  • Titanium