Race/ethnic disparities in risk factor control and survival in the bypass angioplasty revascularization investigation 2 diabetes (BARI 2D) trial

Am J Cardiol. 2013 Nov 1;112(9):1298-305. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.05.071. Epub 2013 Aug 1.


This study sought to evaluate the impact of race/ethnicity on cardiovascular risk factor control and on clinical outcomes in a setting of comparable access to medical care. The BARI 2D trial enrolled 1,750 participants from the United States and Canada that self-reported either White non-Hispanic (n = 1,189), Black non-Hispanic (n = 349), or Hispanic (n = 212) race/ethnicity. Participants had type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease and were randomized to cardiac and glycemic treatment strategies. All patients received intensive target-based medical treatment for cardiac risk factors. Average follow-up was 5.3 years. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards regression models were constructed to assess potential differences in mortality and cardiovascular outcomes across racial/ethnic groups. Long-term risk of death and death/myocardial infarction/stroke did not vary significantly by race/ethnicity (5-year death: 11.0% Whites, 13.7% Blacks, 8.7% Hispanics, p = 0.19; adjusted hazard ratio 1.18 Black versus White, 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 1.67, p = 0.33 and 0.82 Hispanic versus White, 95% confidence interval 0.51 to 1.34, p = 0.43). Among the 1,168 patients with suboptimal risk factor control at baseline, the ability to attain better risk factor control during the trial was associated with higher 5-year survival (71%, 86% and 95% for patients with 0 or 1, 2, and 3 factors in control, respectively, p <0.001); this pattern was observed within each race/ethnic group. In conclusion, significant race/ethnic differences in cardiac risk profiles that persisted during follow-up did not translate into significant differences in 5-year death or death/MI/stroke.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00006305.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary / mortality*
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Artery Disease / diagnostic imaging
  • Coronary Artery Disease / ethnology*
  • Coronary Artery Disease / surgery
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / ethnology*
  • Ethnic Groups*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Global Health
  • Humans
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00006305