Objective: Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are increased in pregnancy compared to the nongravid state. Maternal SDB may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, but this is still under investigation. We performed a systematic literature review, and where feasible, a metaanalysis, to evaluate whether women with SDB in pregnancy have a higher risk of specific adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with women without SDB.
Study design: Original studies published until June 2012 evaluating the association between gestational hypertension/preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, low birthweight infants, and maternal SDB, defined either by symptoms or the reference standard polysomnography, were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Data were extracted on study design and outcome estimates. When appropriate, effect estimates from each study were pooled using a random-effects model.
Results: Of the 4386 studies identified, 31 met the defined criteria. Twenty-one studies, all observational in design, reported dichotomous outcomes; 9 of these adjusted for potential confounders. Maternal SDB was significantly associated with gestational hypertension/preeclampsia (pooled adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-3.09; 5 studies), and gestational diabetes (pooled aOR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.30-2.42; 5 studies).
Conclusion: Based on published observational studies to date, maternal SDB is associated with an increased risk of gestational hypertension and gestational diabetes after adjusting for potential confounders. However, large-scale, prospective cohort, and interventional studies are needed to further elucidate the relationship between maternal SDB and adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Keywords: adverse pregnancy outcomes; gestational diabetes; gestational hypertension; low birthweight infants; sleep apnea.
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