Ratiometric biosensors that measure mitochondrial redox state and ATP in living yeast cells

J Vis Exp. 2013 Jul 22;(77):50633. doi: 10.3791/50633.

Abstract

Mitochondria have roles in many cellular processes, from energy metabolism and calcium homeostasis to control of cellular lifespan and programmed cell death. These processes affect and are affected by the redox status of and ATP production by mitochondria. Here, we describe the use of two ratiometric, genetically encoded biosensors that can detect mitochondrial redox state and ATP levels at subcellular resolution in living yeast cells. Mitochondrial redox state is measured using redox-sensitive Green Fluorescent Protein (roGFP) that is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. Mito-roGFP contains cysteines at positions 147 and 204 of GFP, which undergo reversible and environment-dependent oxidation and reduction, which in turn alter the excitation spectrum of the protein. MitGO-ATeam is a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe in which the ε subunit of the FoF1-ATP synthase is sandwiched between FRET donor and acceptor fluorescent proteins. Binding of ATP to the ε subunit results in conformation changes in the protein that bring the FRET donor and acceptor in close proximity and allow for fluorescence resonance energy transfer from the donor to acceptor.

Publication types

  • Research Support, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Video-Audio Media

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / analysis*
  • Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism
  • Biosensing Techniques / methods*
  • Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer / methods
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins / analysis
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins / metabolism
  • Mitochondria / chemistry*
  • Mitochondria / metabolism
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / chemistry*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism

Substances

  • Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • Adenosine Triphosphate